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CYYZ Cat III (manual) approach


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It's actually Krasnodar with CYYZ audio. Note the crosswind! Note that I almost couldn't find the runway!

 

[VV]120973095[/VV]

The Hornet is best at killing things on the ground. Now, if we could just get a GAU-8 in the nose next to the AN/APG-65, a titanium tub around the pilot, and a couple of J-58 engines in the tail...

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Nice video, however, nothing about that was CAT III

 

CAT III is for autoland approaches that require special aircraft and runway equipment and flight crew qualifications for approach and landings with a zero ceiling down to a forward visibility as low as 300 ft for certain runways. Most are still limited to 600 ft forward visibility. There is no minimum descent altitude for a full CAT III approach as it is a full auto-land done by the auto pilot.

 

CAT II approaches require both a ceiling and a forward visibility as well as a decision height where the runway must be in sight prior to touchdown to assure the aircraft is within the parameters for a safe landing. These are also auto land approaches for the most part with forward visibility limits in the 1200 foot range.

 

CAT I approaches are basically 200 foot ceiling and 1/2 mile visibility that can be flown manually or with the autopilot down to the decision height of 200 feet.

 

There are variances to the above, depending on aircraft and runway equipment but for the most part those are the limitations of the various CAT approach categories.

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CAT III is for autoland [...]

 

To add a bit to the good summary, CAT III is divided into 3 sub categories.

CAT IIIA, CAT IIIB and finally CAT IIIC.

 

As ronht already wrote, there is 600ft forward visibility (CAT IIIA), 300ft forward visibility (CAT IIIB) and in the final form even 0ft forward visibility (CAT IIIC).

 

CAT IIIC however requires a lot of infrastructure to work. For example all roads and taxiways that lead to the runway have to be fitted with inductive detection loops to sense if a aircraft or a car could interfere with the antennas or even worse, accidentally drive onto the runway.

Too my knowledge, the only airport that has an CAT IIIC rated ILS systems is Heathrow, however, there it is not in active use yet because before-mentioned detection loops and other safety aspects have yet to be built.

 

Another problem with the 0ft forward, 0ft downward visibility conditions is that after you land on the runway, you have no way too safely navigate the aircraft off the runway, leave alone to a gate.

 

This is what a CAT IIIA or possibly even B can look like (interesting bit starts at around 2:20).

 

Check out my YouTube: xxJohnxx

 

Intel i7 6800k watercooled | ASUS Rampage V Edition 10 | 32 GB RAM | Asus GTX1080 watercooled

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My apologies. What I intended was to show a bad weather approach by looking out the window. The F-86 has no ILS equipment so, true, this cannot be an ILS approach and landing. My use of Cat III was erroneously used to describe the conditions. Sorry.

The Hornet is best at killing things on the ground. Now, if we could just get a GAU-8 in the nose next to the AN/APG-65, a titanium tub around the pilot, and a couple of J-58 engines in the tail...

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My apologies. What I intended was to show a bad weather approach by looking out the window. The F-86 has no ILS equipment so, true, this cannot be an ILS approach and landing. My use of Cat III was erroneously used to describe the conditions. Sorry.

 

No need to apologize! The video is still very nice too watch and the background radio chatter adds to the immersion very nicely! :thumbup:

Check out my YouTube: xxJohnxx

 

Intel i7 6800k watercooled | ASUS Rampage V Edition 10 | 32 GB RAM | Asus GTX1080 watercooled

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To add a bit to the good summary, CAT III is divided into 3 sub categories.

CAT IIIA, CAT IIIB and finally CAT IIIC.

 

As ronht already wrote, there is 600ft forward visibility (CAT IIIA), 300ft forward visibility (CAT IIIB) and in the final form even 0ft forward visibility (CAT IIIC).

 

CAT IIIC however requires a lot of infrastructure to work. For example all roads and taxiways that lead to the runway have to be fitted with inductive detection loops to sense if a aircraft or a car could interfere with the antennas or even worse, accidentally drive onto the runway.

Too my knowledge, the only airport that has an CAT IIIC rated ILS systems is Heathrow, however, there it is not in active use yet because before-mentioned detection loops and other safety aspects have yet to be built.

 

Another problem with the 0ft forward, 0ft downward visibility conditions is that after you land on the runway, you have no way too safely navigate the aircraft off the runway, leave alone to a gate.

 

This is what a CAT IIIA or possibly even B can look like (interesting bit starts at around 2:20).

 

 

 

Holy F@ck! 200 ft before the lights are visible? That is nuts!

 

Is the computer flying that approach? It seems like the autopilot isn't disengaged until they hit the runway.

Ours is not to reason why, but rather to do and die.

 

A man walks into a zoo. The only animal in the entire zoo is a dog. It's a shitzu

 

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Is the computer flying that approach? It seems like the autopilot isn't disengaged until they hit the runway.

 

Yes, CAT III approaches are flown by the autopilot exclusively. There is no option to fly such an approach in manual control (very few aircraft have HUDs that can allow that, not the norm though).

 

When flying CAT IIIA, B and C approaches, the autopilot controls pitch, roll, yaw and throttle for the whole phase including roll-out on the runway.

After the plane has been configured for landing (landing flaps and gear, spoilers and auto-brake armed) the autopilot flies the approach without further input.

The only thing left for the crew to do (besides monitoring) is to put the engines into reverse thrust after the throttle has been put into idle by the autopilot. Even during the roll-out the autopilot has full control to keep the aircraft on the runway.

Only after the aircraft slows down below a certain speed the autopilot will be disengaged and the crew will taxi the aircraft off the runway.

 

Because the whole task is quit complicated and a failure of an autopilot could cause loss of life, 3 (or in some cases 2.5) autopilots have to be installed in an aircraft. These 3 autopilots will work independently, monitoring themselves and the other two units. If one of them fails during any part of the automatic landing the other two can take-over control ("fail active"). This mode is often called "Dual Land".

 

("Single Land" is used by aircraft that only have two autopilots. Such a set-up is usually "fail passive" where both autopilots will disconnect if one of them fails, requiring the crew to take control. If both of them work as they should, the aircraft is capable of automatic landings as well. Due to the simpler systems it might not get the same minimum ratings as a "fail active" setup)

 

The technical side behind the automatic landings is quit fascinating. For example on the MD-11, which has 3 engines, the generator of each engine normally supplies one big network linked. However, during an automatic landing that big network is split up into three different networks, each supplied by it's own engine generator. Each autopilot is now powered from just one of the three independent electrical networks. This means, a complete network could short-out in the critical phase of the landing and the other two auto-pilots are not affected.

With aircraft having less than 3 engines, similar technologies are used, often including the APU generator to create a third power network, to allow for individual power supply of each autopilot.

 

Of course each autopilot has it's own set of sensors, gyros and stuff like that.

 

However, if an aircraft can autoland or not is not only depended on the aircraft but also the ground facilities and the crew. The later usually has to perform one automatic ILS landing per month to keep their rating.

Check out my YouTube: xxJohnxx

 

Intel i7 6800k watercooled | ASUS Rampage V Edition 10 | 32 GB RAM | Asus GTX1080 watercooled

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When flying CAT IIIA, B and C approaches, the autopilot controls pitch, roll, yaw and throttle for the whole phase including roll-out on the runway.

 

Nitpick: For CATIIIa autoland is mandated only to touchdown.

 

Good reading for those who want to learn more.

 

Cheers,

/Fred

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Nitpick: For CATIIIa autoland is mandated only to touchdown.

 

Thanks for the info! I knew there was something about that, but I wasn't entirely sure.

Check out my YouTube: xxJohnxx

 

Intel i7 6800k watercooled | ASUS Rampage V Edition 10 | 32 GB RAM | Asus GTX1080 watercooled

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My apologies. What I intended was to show a bad weather approach by looking out the window. The F-86 has no ILS equipment so, true, this cannot be an ILS approach and landing. My use of Cat III was erroneously used to describe the conditions. Sorry.

 

 

Also from me - NO apologies necessary!!! Your video was very well done, I liked it. I just wanted to give everyone some information regarding what a real-life CAT III landing entails since I've done many of them in the real world. They work and for the most part are very safe, but are not as much "fun" as they appear when your butt in in the seat - lots going on with very little room for error.

 

If anyone needs to apologize it's probably me for not being more clear about that.

 

Thanks again for your post and video.


Edited by ronht
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